Minggu, 11 Desember 2011


first of all written climb to praise and  thank the presence of Allah SWT of  blessing and blessing, so that report entitling " Material English Language " have been finished better  without there is any resistance. writer realize that making of this report possible there is still insuffiency, by that because of writer conveniently accept suggestion and criticism which good for the shake perfection of making of writer report expectation hopefully this report good for side reading it.

Written Report Guidelines

The written report should have the following sections:
(1). Title page
(2). Abstract
(3). Introduction
(4). Materials and Methods
(5). Results
(6). Discussion
(7). Conclusions
(8). References
Description of the content of each of these sections follows. Additional remarks on report preparation and writing style are given at the end.

Title page:

The TITLE PAGE identifies
  • The full name of the project
  • The course (ChE E 3810)
  • The name of the principal author (write NONE if a principal author was not used)
  • The names of the other group members
  • The group number

  • Abstract:

    The ABSTRACT is not a part of the body of the report itself. Rather, the abstract is a brief summary of the report contents that is often separately circulated so potential readers can decide whether to read the report. The abstract should very concisely summarize the whole report: why it was written, what was discovered or developed, and what is claimed to be the significance of the effort. The abstract does not include figures or tables, and only the most significant numerical values or results should be given.


    The INTRODUCTION should provide a clear statement of the problem posed by the project, and why the problem is of interest. It should reflect the scenario, if available. If needed, the introduction also needs to present background information so that the reader can understand the significance of the problem. A brief summary of the unique approach your group used to solve the problem should be given, possibly also including a concise introduction to theory or concepts used later to analyze and to discuss the results.

    Materials and Methods:

    The purpose of the MATERIALS AND METHODS section is to describe the materials, apparatus, and procedures used to carry out the measurements. Most importantly, the section needs to provide a clear presentation of how key measurements were obtained and how the measurements were analyzed. This is where the particular approach followed to reach the project's objectives should be described. The detail should be sufficient so that the reader can easily understand what was done. An accurate, schematic diagram depicting the apparatus should be included and referred to in the text as needed (if a diagram has been already provided it can be used in the report, provided that the source is properly referenced). To improve clarity of presentation, this section may be further divided into subsections (ex. a Materials subsection, an Apparatus subsection, a Methods or Procedures subsection, etc.).


    The RESULTS section is dedicated to presenting the actual results (i.e. measured and calculated quantities), not to discussing their meaning or intepretation. The results should be summarized using appropriate Tables and Figures (graphs or schematics). Every Figure and Table should have a legend that describes concisely what is contained or shown. Figure legends go below the figure, table legends above the table. Throughout the report, but especially in this section, pay attention to reporting numbers with an appropriate number of significant figures. A formal error analysis (such as, perhaps, was done in Physics lab) is not necessary. Still, features of the data-taking and processing that may have especially contributed to errors should be pointed out. One classical example is the taking of small differences between large numbers; for instance, 11.5+0.2 - 10.8+ 0.3 yields a very large fractional error (about 70 %) on the resulting difference, 0.7+0.5. Another procedure that usually increases error is numerical differentiation.


    The DISCUSSION interprets the results in light of the project's objectives. The most important goal of the DISCUSSION section is to interpret the results so that the reader is informed of the insight or answers that the results provide. The DISCUSSION should also present an evaluation of the particular approach taken by the group. For example: Based on the results, how could the experimental procedure be improved? What additional, future work may be warranted? What recommendations can be drawn?


    The CONCLUSIONS should summarize the central points made in the Discussion section, reinforcing for the reader the value and implications of the work. If the results were not definitive, specific future work that may be needed can be (briefly) described. The conclusions should never contain "surprises". Therefore, any conclusions should be based on observations and data already discussed. It is considered extremely bad form to introduce new data in the conclusions.


    The REFERENCES section should contain complete citations following standard form. The form of the citation depends on the type of source being referenced, and is different for whole books, chapters in books, and articles published in a journal. One good format to follow is that used in the Chemical Engineering Progress journal, published by AIChE. The references should be numbered and listed in the order they were cited in the body of the report. In the text of the report, a particular reference can be cited by using a numerical superscript that corresponds to its number in the reference list. If a reference has not been actually consulted, it should be listed "as discussed in [name of the work that discussed the reference]".

    Additional Remarks:

    Writing Style
  • Reports should be as long as they need to be -- no longer. Brevity is desirable, provided the necessary information is properly communicated. Some suggestions: Avoid reproducing standard information, for example, calibration curves. Avoid appendices unless there is a specific reason for them. Consider each sentence - does it meaningfully contribute to the report?

  • The reports should consider the background of the fictitious person described in the project scenario. The quality of the report can suffer both from overly detailed as well as too incomplete descriptions.

  • Only the title page, the abstract, the introduction, and the references should start on a separate page; the other sections should not. However, a heading needs to indicate the beginning of each section. Sub-headings within sections can be an excellent way to further organize the report.

  • While scientific writing does not have to be elegant, it must be precise. To state "The data were plotted and seemed to agree with the theory." is not precise. To state that "The pressure drop across the column in inches of water was plotted on log-log coordinates as a function of air flow rate in cubic feet per minute. The plot, shown in Figure 3, was close to linear and the slope of the best straight line, 1.92, was close to 2, as predicted by theory." is precise. Also, whenever possible, phrases such as "small", "large", "greater than", should be used in conjuction with the actual numbers.

  • A table or figure should never be inserted into the report without first referring to that table or figure in the text. Reference to a figure should include a brief description of what it contains and what it contributes to the point under consideration. Figures and tables should be merged into the text or placed on a separate page immediately following the first page on which they are mentioned; they should not be collected at the end of the report.

  • References must be numbered in the order that they are cited. It is good practice to attribute and acknowledge. The first of these protects against charges of plagiarism. The second gains friends and shows a generous nature.

  • A suitable font is Times Roman, 12 pt.

  • A uniform verb tense should be used throughout the report, preferably past tense.

  • The imperative mood, i.e. as if giving directions or orders, should not be used. The purpose is to state what was done, not to tell other people what to do.

  • Since the reports are formal, the first person (singular "I" or plural "We") should not be used.

  • Sentences should not start with "It" unless the object that "It" refers to is absolutely clear from the context.

  • All text should be double-spaced to allow room for comments.

  • All pages, including figure pages, should be numbered consecutively.

  • Overly long sentences should be avoided. Two or more short sentences should be used instead.

  • An excellent way to improve style and grammar is to have others proofread the report.

  • Needlessly fancy presentation (bold, italic, or underlined fonts; color in text or figures) should be avoided unless it truly enhances the clarity of the report.

  • Figures
    Figures are categorized as either graphs or drawings. Graphs should follow engineering standards, not Excel defaults. Backgrounds should be white, not shaded. Style should be similar to that found in standard engineering textbooks. Grids should be appropriate to what the reader is likely to extract from the figure. Type sizes for coordinates and legends should be appropriate: not too small, not too large. A sans-serif (e.g. Arial) font works well for figure legends and coordinate labels. All legends should be within the graph area, not beside it. Line thickness should be sufficient to provide for good visibility, but not heavier than necessary.

    Figures (drawings, schematics) should be kept simple. Fancy art work and three-dimensional renditions can be distracting if used indiscriminately. Below every figure or graph should be a caption that concisely describes what is shown. Figures and graphs should be numbered consecutively.

    Tables should be well organized, with unshaded backgrounds. A table should not include columns that have all entries identical. As with Figures, a standard engineering textbook can be used as a guide to good table composition. Tables should be numbered consecutively, and above each table should be a caption describing the table contents.

    Some Common Abbreviations Used in Marking
    NC = not clear
    RW = rewrite
    SP = be specific, avoid generalities
    RT = rethink, logic appears flawed or missing
    curly brackets = grader's comments
    Underline = see comments above underlined text
    Check mark = good
    Check mark with one or more slashes or pluses = very good to excellent


    Subjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Namun topik Subjunctive ini berbeda dengan Conditional. Conditional adalah kalimat pengandaian juga namun perbedaannya adalah Conditional dilengkapi dengan syarat-syarat tertentu untuk mengandai-andai. Misalnya "Aku akan mengundanya jika aku jadi kamu.". Berikut ini adalah penjelasan tentang Subjunctives.

    Struktur Subjunctive

    be (past)
    • I were
    • you were
    • he, she, it were
    • we were
    • you were
    • they were
    be (present)
    • I be
    • you be
    • he, she, it be
    • we be
    • you be
    • they be
    Kata kerja lain (past & present)
    • I work
    • you work
    • he, she, it work
    • we work
    • you work
    • they work
    Penggunaan Subjunctive

    Kita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang seseorang:
    • Inginkan agar terjadi
    • Harapkan akan terjadi
    • Membayangkan akan terjadi
    • The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
    • It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
    • If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.
    Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut:
    • Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that
    • Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that
    • The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
    • The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
    • It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
    • It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.
    Perhatikan bahwa struktur berikut ini, subjunctive-nya sama. Tidak masalah kalimat itu tenses-nya past atau present. Contoh:
    • Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
    • Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
    • Present: It is essential that she be present.
    • Past: It was essential that she be present.
    Kita selalu menggunakan were sebagai pengganti "was" setelah if (dan kata lainnya yang memiliki arti yang sama). Contoh:
    • If I were you, I would ask her.
    • Suppose she were here. What would you say?

    Mengapa kita menggunakan "I were", "he were"?

    Kita sering mendengar orang berkata "if I were you, I would go" atau "if he were here, he would tell you". Memang normalnya adalah: I was, he was. Tetapi struktur if I were you tidak melihat Past Tense". Struktur tersebut hanya mengenal past subjunctive untuk "to be" nya. Perhatikan contoh kata-kata/frase di bawah ini untuk struktur di atas:
    • if
    • as if
    • wish
    • suppose
    • If I were younger, I would go. (FORMAL)
    • If I was younger, I would go. (INFORMAL)
    • If he weren't so mean, he would buy one for me.(FORMAL)
    • If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me. (INFORMAL)
    • I wish I weren't so slow! (FORMAL)
    • I wish I wasn't so slow! (INFORMAL)
    • I wish it were longer. (FORMAL)
    • I wish it was longer. (INFORMAL)
    • It's not as if I were ugly. (FORMAL)
    • It's not as if I was ugly. (INFORMAL)
    • She acts as if she were Queen. (FORMAL)
    • She acts as if she was Queen. (INFORMAL)
    • If I were you, I should tell her. (FORMAL)
    • If I was you, I should tell her.  (INFORMAL)
    Note: We do not normally say "if I was you", even in familiar conversation.

    Beberapa ekspresi menggunakan subjunctive. Contoh:
    • Long live the King!
    • God bless America!
    • Heaven forbid!
    • Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
    • Come what may, I will never forget you.
    • We are all citizens of the world, as it were


    Gerunds atau verbals atau verbal nouns adalah kata kerja berbentuk ing yang dipakai sebagai kata benda.
    A. Bentuk
    Gerund dibentuk dari : kata kerja + ing (V1 + ing)
    Misalnya: smoking, shoping, hunting dan sebagainya.
    Bentuk gerund adalah sama seperti bentuk present participle, dan keduanya merupakan bagian dari kata kerja. Perbedaannya gerund merupakan sejenis kata benda, tetapi present participle adalah semacam kata sifat. Oleh karena itu, meskipun serupa tetapi keduanya sangat berbeda dalam sifatnya.
    Gerund mempunyai empat macam bentuk :
    Present or continuous
    having done
    being done
    having been done
    B. Sifat
    Sifat ganda gerund:
    Gerund merupakan part of speech ganda. Suatu kata benda dan kata kerja yang digabungkan. Oleh karena itu, kita harus menjelaskannya dalam tiap sifat ini :
    1) Sebagai kata benda
    2) Sebagai bagian kata kerja
    C. Pemakaian
    1) Karena gerund merupakan sejenis kata benda, maka ia dapat digunakan sebagai berikut :
    a) Sebagai subjek untuk kata kerja
    contoh: Sleeping is necessary to life
    b) Sebagai objek untuk kata kerja
    contoh: I don’t like smoking
    c) Sebagai komplemen untuk kata kerja
    contoh: My chief delight is riding
    d) Sebagai objek untuk preposisi .contoh: He gave up smoking
    2) Gerund dengan objek
    Karena gerund adalah bagian kata kerja, ia dapat menggunakan objek di belakangnya.
    a) Objek langsung
    contoh: He is clever at teaching mathematics (mathematics = objek langsung)
    b) Objek tak langsung
    contoh: He is clever at teaching us mathematics (us = objek tak langsung)
    c) Objek yang tetap dipertahankan dalam kalimat pasif
    contoh: She is pleased at being taught mathematics
    d) Objek yang artinya mirip dengan kata kerja itu sendiri
    contoh: She is proud of having sung a fine song
    e) Objek refleksif
    contoh: She is in the habit of oversleeping herself
    3) Gerund dengan genitif
    Kata benda atau kata ganti, asalkan menunjukkan orang atau binatang, haruslah dalam kasus genitif, bilamana kata benda atau kata ganti itu diletakkan di depan gerund.
    Contoh: I am pleased at your coming
    Perhatikan :
    a) Pemakaian gerund yang didahului kata benda atau kata ganti genitif yang berikut ini kadang-kadang terjadi :
    Contoh: This was a creative work of my doing
    b) Kadang-kadang huruf “a” diletakkan di depan gerund dalam pengertian preposisi. Di sini “a” merupakan perubahan atau singkatan dari preposisi on :
    The man has gone a-hunting
    He has gone a-fishing
    4) Yang memiliki bentuk ing, selain gerund, masih ada present participle dan kata benda asli, haruslah kita bedakan dengan jelas.
    a) A sleeping carriage (a carriage used for sleeping), di sini sleeping merupakan gerund
    b) A sleeping child (a child that is sleeping), di sini sleeping merupakan present participle yang dipakai sebagai kata sifat
    c) Rising early is good for health, di sini rising adalah kata kerja yang diterangkan kata keterangan early, merupakan gerund yang berfungsi sebagai subjek.
    d) Early rising is good for health, di sini rising diterangkan oleh kata sifat early, dengan demikian rising adalah part of speech dan merupakan kata benda asli.
    5) Gerund dalam bentuk present perfect:
    He regrets having done so (he regrets that he has done or did so)
    He regretted having done so (he regretted that he had done so)
    Gerund dan bukan infinitive harus dipakai:
    a) Sesudah preposisi atau ungkapan berpreposisi :
    Without, etc + gerund
    Contoh: Do your work without speaking. Kerjakanlah pekerjaanmu tanpa berbicara
    Look forward to + gerund
    Contoh: I look forward to seeing you soon. Saya mengharapkan dengan senang hati menemui anda segera
    Instead of, etc + gerund
    Contoh: You had much better work instead of idling away your time. Sebaiknya Anda bekerja daripada buang-buang waktu
    b) Sesudah kata-kata yang secara tetap menggunakan preposisi :
    Fond of + gerund
    Contoh: He is always fond of hunting. Ia selalu suka berburu
    Insist on + gerund
    Contoh: He insisted on going to Kudus. Ia bersikeras untuk pergi ke Kudus
    Object to + gerund
    Contoh: I object to smoking. Saya keberatan merokok
    Prevent from + gerund
    Contoh: I was prevented from going because of illness. Saya terhalang pergi karena sakit
    Succeed in + gerund
    Contoh: He succeeded in solving the problem. Ia berhasil memecahkan masalah itu
    Think of + gerund
    Contoh: I often think of going to France. Saya sering bermaksud pergi ke Perancis
    Tired of + gerund
    Contoh: I’m tired of eating foreign food every day. Saya bosan makan makanan asing tiap hari
    Used to + gerund
    Contoh: I’m used to getting up early. Saya biasa bangun pagi-pagi
    c) Sesudah katakata kerja tertentu
    Avoid + gerund
    Contoh: We can’t avoid making mistakes. Kita tak dapat menghindari membuat kesalahan
    Can’t bear + gerund
    Contoh: He can’t bear being laughed at. Ia tak dapat tahan ditertawakan orang
    Can’t help + gerund
    Contoh: I can’t help laughing. Saya tak dapat menahan tertawa
    Catatan 1 :
    Cannot help dan cannot but mempunyai arti yang sama tidak dapat menahan, tetapi pemakaiannya berbeda. Cannot help diikuti oleh gerund tetapi cannot but diikuti oleh infinitive tanpa to.
    contoh :
    I cannot but laugh
    Can’t stand + gerund
    Contoh: She can’t stand being laughed at. Ia tak tahan ditertawakan orang
    Delay + gerund
    Contoh: I delayed answering you owing to pressure of work. Saya menunda untuk menjawab anda karena sibuk
    Enjoy + gerund
    He enjoys playing a game of football. Ia senang sekali bermain sepak bola
    Catatan 2 :
    Kata-kata kerja yang berarti “to like” atau “to dislike” boleh diikuti infinitive atau gerund.
    He likes reading English literature (he likes to read English literature). Ia suka membaca
    kesusastraan Inggris
    She dislikes swimming (he dislike to swim). Ia tak suka berenang
    Escape + gerund
    Contoh: He narrowly escaped drowning. Ia nyaris tenggelam
    Finish + gerund
    Contoh: I haven’t finished speaking. Saya belum selesai berbicara
    Catatan 3 :
    Kata kerja yang berarti “to begin” diikuti oleh infinitive atau gerund
    Go on (= continue) + gerund
    Contoh: The rain went on falling all night. Hujan terus turun sepanjang malam
    Keep (on) + gerund
    Contoh: He was kept waiting a long time, but he kept his temper. Ia dibiarkan menunggu lama, tetapi ia menahan amarahnya
    Mind (= object to) + gerund
    Contoh: Would you mind shutting the window? berkeberatankah anda menutup jendela itu?
    Miss + gerund
    Contoh: He narrowly missed getting killed. Ia nyaris terbunuh
    Postpone + gerund
    Contoh: I shall postpone writing till I learn full particulars. Saya akan menunda menulis surat sampai saya mendengar/mengetahui data yang lengkap
    Remember + gerund
    Contoh: I remember meeting you at the theatre. Saya ingat pernah menjumpai anda di dalam gedung bioskop
    Stop + gerund
    Contoh: My watch stopped ticking. Jam saya mati
    Understand + gerund
    Contoh: He understands managing his business. Ia mengerti bagaimana mengurus bisnisnya
    d) Sesudah kata-kata sifat tertentu
    Busy + gerund
    Contoh: I am busy writing letters. Saya sibuk menulis surat
    Worth + gerund
    Contoh: This book is worth reading. Buku ini patut dibaca
    e) Sesudah ungkapan-ungkapan tertentu
    It is no use + gerund
    Contoh: It’s no use begging like a beggar. Tak ada gunanya meminta-minta seperti orang minta-minta
    It is no good + gerund
    Contoh: It’s no good getting angry at once. Tak ada gunanya segera menjadi marah
    There is no + gerund
    Contoh: There’s no getting around it. Hal itu tak dapat dielakkan
    There is no harm in + gerund
    Contoh: There’s no harm in trying. Tak ada ruginya bila mencoba
    Have the pleasure of + gerund
    Contoh: I had the pleasure of meeting him. Saya senang sekali bertemu dengannya
    Take pleasure in + gerund
    Contoh: He takes pleasure in visiting the sick. Dengan senang hati ia mengunjungi orang sakit
    To be interested in + gerund
    Contoh: He was interested in learning more about my work. Ia berminat belajar lebih banyak tentang pekerjaanku
    To be ashamed of + gerund
    Contoh: The girl was ashamed of having been beaten in class by her brother. Gadis itu malu karena telah dipukul di kelas oleh saudara laki-lakinya
    Gerund dipakai pada papan tanda yang menyatakan suatu larangan, yaitu sesudah no
    No, talking! diamlah!
    No, passing! dilarang melintas!
    No, smoking! dilarang merokok!
    No, spitting! dilarang meludah! etc.
    Dipakai dalam ungkapan
    Contoh: Seeing is believing. Kalau sudah melihat baru percaya
    D. Gerund sejenis kata benda abstrak
    Gerund sebenarnya merupakan sejenis kata benda abstrak dan mempunyai arti yang sama seperti abstract noun atau seperti noun infinitive:
    Gerund : Sleeping is necessary to health
    Abstract Noun : Sleep is necessary to health
    Noun infinitive : To sleep is necessary to health
    Ketiga kalimat tersebut di atas semuanya berarti suatu hal yang sama yaitu tidur perlu untuk kesehatan.
    Bentuk Dasar Kata Kerja
    A. Infinitive with to. Kita menggunakan infinitive with to, jika :
    1) Didahului oleh kata-kata kerja yang sering diikuti oleh infinitif.
    a) Tidak mempunyai sebuah objek
    agree (menyetujui), refuse (menolak), promise (berjanji), propose (bermaksud, berniat), decide (memutuskan), determine (memutuskan), hesitate (ragu-ragu), hope (berharap), regret (menyesal), learn (belajar), manage (berusaha), arrange (mengatur), undertake (berusaha), remember (ingat), forget (lupa), seem (rupa-rupanya, rasanya), try (mencoba, berusaha), fail (lalai, lupa), neglect (lalai)
    contoh :
    He tried to fix the car
    He fails to return the book, etc.
    b) Boleh diikuti objek
    ask (minta), help (membantu), expect (mengharapkan, mengira), like (suka), prefer (lebih suka), mean (bermaksud), intend (bermaksud), want (ingin, menghendaki), wish (hendak, menghendaki)
    contoh :
    He asked to be allowed to enter
    I helped to open the letters
    They asked me to wait a moment
    I helped him to paint, etc.
    c) Selalu mempunyai objek
    advise (menasehati), urge (mendorong), tempt (menggoda), encourage (membesarkan hati, mendorong), warn (memperingatkan). invite (mengundang), request (minta, memohon), teach (mengajar), instruct (memerintahkan, melatih, mengajar),remind (mengingatkan), tell (mengatakan, menyuruh), command (memerintahkan), order (menyuruh), compel (memaksa, mengharuskan), oblige (mengharuskan), allow (memperkenankan), permit (mengizinkan, membolehkan), forbid (melarang)
    contoh :
    I advised him to give up smoking
    I urged him to persevere, etc.
    2) Didahului oleh ought :
    Contoh: Children ought to obey their parents. Anak-anak seharusnya mentaati orang tua mereka
    3) Didahului oleh to be
    Contoh: He is very naughty to tease his friend. Ia sangat nakal menggoda temannya
    B. Infinitive without to, digunakan jika :
    1) Didahului oleh kata kerja bantu kecuali to be dan ought
    Contoh: He can swim very well. Ia dapat berenang dengan baik sekali
    2) Didahului oleh need dan dare dalam kalimat menyangkal dan kalimat tanya
    Contoh: He needn’t go
    3) Didahului oleh had better (lebih baik), had rather (lebih suka) dan would rather (lebih suka)
    Contoh: You had better go there at once. Anda lebih baik pergi kesana segera
    I had rather stay at home than go to the cinema. Saya lebih suka tinggal di rumah daripada
    pergi menonton bioskop
    4) Didahului oleh kata kerja to see, to hear, to feel, dan to watch
    Contoh: I saw her leave the building. Saya melihat dia meninggalkan gedung itu
    I heard him speak in English. Saya mendengar dia berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris
    atau boleh digunakan gerund :
    Contoh: I saw her leaving the building
    Kalau kata kerja see, hear, feel, watch dipakai dalam kalimat pasif, infinitif with to harus dipakai.
    Contoh: She was seen to leave the building
    5) Didahului oleh kata kerja to have, to let, dan to make (dalam pengertian menyebabkan)
    Contoh: I had the tailor sew my shirt. Saya menyuruh penjahit itu menjahit baju saya
    You can’t make her understand. Anda tidak dapat memaksakan dia supaya mengerti
    C. The two kinds of infinitive (dua jenis infinitif)
    Ada dua jenis infinitif, bentuk sama tetapi fungsinya berbeda :
    1. The noun infinitive (infinitif kata benda)
    2. The gerundial infinitive (infinitif kata kerja yang dibendakan)
    1) The noun infinitive boleh dipakai sebagai :
    a) Subjek terhadap kata kerja
    To err (= error) is human
    To forgive (= forgiveness) is divine
    b) Objek terhadap kata kerja
    Contoh: We expect to succeed. Kita mengharapkan sukses
    c) Komplemen terhadap kata kerja
    Contoh: She appears to be a wise woman. Ia kelihatannya seorang wanita yang bijaksana
    d) Objek terhadap kata depan except, about, but, than, etc.
    Contoh: He desired nothing except to succeed. Ia tak menginginkan apa-apa kecuali keberhasilan
    e) Bentuk eksklamasi/seruan :
    Contoh: Foolish fellow! to suppose that he could be pardoned! orang tolol! siapa kira bahwa ia dapat diampuni!
    2) The gerundial infinitive dapat dipakai untuk :
    a) Memberi sifat kata kerja, dalam pengertian tujuan/maksud, sebab, atau hasil.
    Contoh: He came to see the flower show. Ia datang untuk melihat pameran bunga
    b) Memberi sifat kata benda, dalam pengertian tujuan atau maksud. Infinitifnya mungkin atributif atau predikatif
    Contoh: An apartment to let. Sebuah apartemen yang disewakan (pemakaian atributif)
    This apartment is to let. Apartemen ini disewakan (pemakaian predikatif)
    c) Memberi sifat kata sifat, dalam pengertian hal atau maksud :
    Contoh: Slow to speak and quick to hear. Lambat berbicara dan cepat mendengar