Minggu, 11 Desember 2011

Subjunctives



Subjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Namun topik Subjunctive ini berbeda dengan Conditional. Conditional adalah kalimat pengandaian juga namun perbedaannya adalah Conditional dilengkapi dengan syarat-syarat tertentu untuk mengandai-andai. Misalnya "Aku akan mengundanya jika aku jadi kamu.". Berikut ini adalah penjelasan tentang Subjunctives.

Struktur Subjunctive

be (past)
  • I were
  • you were
  • he, she, it were
  • we were
  • you were
  • they were
be (present)
  • I be
  • you be
  • he, she, it be
  • we be
  • you be
  • they be
Kata kerja lain (past & present)
  • I work
  • you work
  • he, she, it work
  • we work
  • you work
  • they work
Penggunaan Subjunctive

Kita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang seseorang:
  • Inginkan agar terjadi
  • Harapkan akan terjadi
  • Membayangkan akan terjadi
Contoh:
  • The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
  • It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
  • If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.
Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut:
  • Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that
  • Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that
Contoh:
  • The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
  • The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
  • It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
  • It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.
Perhatikan bahwa struktur berikut ini, subjunctive-nya sama. Tidak masalah kalimat itu tenses-nya past atau present. Contoh:
  • Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
  • Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
  • Present: It is essential that she be present.
  • Past: It was essential that she be present.
Kita selalu menggunakan were sebagai pengganti "was" setelah if (dan kata lainnya yang memiliki arti yang sama). Contoh:
  • If I were you, I would ask her.
  • Suppose she were here. What would you say?

Mengapa kita menggunakan "I were", "he were"?

Kita sering mendengar orang berkata "if I were you, I would go" atau "if he were here, he would tell you". Memang normalnya adalah: I was, he was. Tetapi struktur if I were you tidak melihat Past Tense". Struktur tersebut hanya mengenal past subjunctive untuk "to be" nya. Perhatikan contoh kata-kata/frase di bawah ini untuk struktur di atas:
  • if
  • as if
  • wish
  • suppose
  • If I were younger, I would go. (FORMAL)
  • If I was younger, I would go. (INFORMAL)
  • If he weren't so mean, he would buy one for me.(FORMAL)
  • If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me. (INFORMAL)
  • I wish I weren't so slow! (FORMAL)
  • I wish I wasn't so slow! (INFORMAL)
  • I wish it were longer. (FORMAL)
  • I wish it was longer. (INFORMAL)
  • It's not as if I were ugly. (FORMAL)
  • It's not as if I was ugly. (INFORMAL)
  • She acts as if she were Queen. (FORMAL)
  • She acts as if she was Queen. (INFORMAL)
  • If I were you, I should tell her. (FORMAL)
  • If I was you, I should tell her.  (INFORMAL)
Note: We do not normally say "if I was you", even in familiar conversation.

Beberapa ekspresi menggunakan subjunctive. Contoh:
  • Long live the King!
  • God bless America!
  • Heaven forbid!
  • Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
  • Come what may, I will never forget you.
  • We are all citizens of the world, as it were

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